What is ATP?
- ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) is the primary source of energy for the body cell which is generated by the mitochondria, for which they produce a tremendous amount of energy, they are also known as “cells’ power generator.” Mitochondria is likened to the world’s largest nuclear power plant; their input forms ATP into the cytoplasm, used by the cells and fulfil the energy needs of the whole body.
- If you want to have a quality lifestyle and achieving longevity, it is necessary to maintain the mitochondrial health. However, due to ignorance, we are letting our bad habits controlling our body, slowly moving to the destruction progress, hindering our cell energy production.
- The formation of free radicals is caused by the malfunctioning of mitochondria which is due to the long-term exposure to the hazardous environment. Formation of radicals → mitochondrial mutations → the more mitochondrial mutations, the more damage DNA will be → all of these will lead to cell dying.
- Reasons for ageing: The longer the duration of mitochondrial mutations, the higher the damage.
1991 Nobel Prize winner in Biomedical Field
Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann are the two German cell physiologists who discovered the single ion channels of the cell membrane.
How do cells utilize the ion-selective membrane:
- Body cell is isolated from the outside world by the cell membrane; there are many channels in the cell membrane which allow the absorption of nutrients. There are around 20-40 ion-selective channels which are used by body cells for the transfer of nutrients.
- These channels consist of a single molecule or multiple molecules called proteins channel, the diameter of the passage hole is minimal which can only allow a specific ion (0.5 – 0.6 million of a millimetre) to pass through at one time.
- The shape of ion channels will change accordingly to the environment which will lead to changes in the flow of ions. The changes in the molecular form of ion channels indicate ion channels’ movement such as “Open” or “Close.” These changes are triggered by an acceptor which is a specific signal activating molecule in the cell.
- In the cell membrane of muscle cells, an ion channel allows up to 10–12 amperes passing through, which is equal to one hundred million ions per second.
- Life starts with the changes in the cell membrane. All cells including nerve cells, gland cells, and blood cells, use the specific ion channels to perform a particular function.